The Greater Manchester Sound Archive is the new collection of sounds at Archives+ , Central Library in Manchester. It is a rich sonic treasure trove charting the socio-political history of the city…
A number of people have asked me where is best to find archival documents for brass bands? I have found that outside musical journals, brass band periodicals and local and national newspapers, which can be found in the British Library collections, the best finds are often in local studies libraries. I have also listed a number of brass bands that hold private collections. It is always worth while contacting a band to see what they have.
Naturally, because of my research, these archives are mostly in the Southern Pennines. I think, however, that most libraries will have a good music collection if you rummage around. In addition my research is driven by the social networks of musical groups, and the library collections reflect this ethos.
I have listed the archives and local studies libraries below. If you follow the link, where possible, the address will be shown. I’m sad to report that many of the local studies in Lancashire are under threat because of financial cuts. It is a fact that my PhD thesis would not have been as rich without these libraries and their loss would be a great shame.
In this post I want to outline the importance of using local archive material in the study of history and musicology. Local archive libraries were valuable resources when I researched my PhD, ‘Slate-Grey Rain and Polished Euphoniums’: Southern Pennine Brass Bands the Working Class and the North, c. 1840-1914 (University of Huddersfield, PhD Thesis, 2015).
I have outlined a little theoretical background as to why local archives are significant and then I have listed an indicative bibliography of primary source material that helped illustrate the themes my thesis covered, class, culture, gender and region. I also consulted local newspapers and band periodicals, which is somewhat axiomatic, but they were also significant sources of reporting and comment. My key point, however, is that local studies libraries contain gems of archive material that are often undiscovered. My research was done in the Southern Pennines, which has proved a fruitful area for many historians.
Local Archives and Influential Historians
Influential historians have turned to the Southern Pennines to examine working-class lives in the ‘classic’ period of class formation. In 1968, Eric Hobsbawm argued, when writing about Manchester, that ‘whoever says industrial revolution says cotton.’ E. P. Thompson’s classic, The Making of the Working Class (London, 1969) was coloured by archival work from the West Riding of Yorkshire. Patrick Joyce was emphatic that ‘the manufacturing districts of Lancashire and the West Riding of Yorkshire were the cradle of factory production, and it [was] to them that posterity […] looked in seeking to discern the nature of the class structure to which the new system of manufacture gave rise.’ Therefore, it is valid to view the density of brass bands in the area as a way of defining aspects of working-class leisure and cultural activity that depended on, interacted with and influenced other activities within the industrial settlements of the Southern Pennines.
Brass Bands as an Agency for Social History
My research used brass bands because of the vast amount of social networks they were involved in. In 1892, the music journal, Magazine of Music featured an article that placed an emphasis on the importance of northern brass bands’ social networks. This piece featured the importance of brass band contests and how they encouraged musical skill; moreover, the rhetoric in the piece highlighted the importance of bands over other musical groups in bringing working-class cultures to the attention of the wider world. Towards the article’s end the author wrote:
Contests, however, are by no means the only objects, as everybody knows, for which bands exist. There is scarcely a public function of any kind at which there is not a band to dispense sweet harmonies. As one looks through the record of a month’s work, one sees social gatherings of all kinds – teas, suppers, dances, cricket or football matches, presentations, festivals, demonstrations, camp meetings and anniversaries. It would seem as if nothing human were complete without a band, for this week, a band has to play at a marriage and a funeral. At Christmas the bands turn out in great force to go the round of their subscribers; and we hear that in spite of the intense cold last Christmas, some bands played before the houses of over a hundred[…]members, notwithstanding benumbed fingers and frozen valves […].There are many wide questions connected with these bands – the influence on their members, on their home life, on the life of the neighbourhood, which we must leave to be answered […] by those whose knowledge of bands and bandsmen is more extensive than our own.
Furthermore the years 1870-1914 are of fundamental importance in any study of recreation and leisure. These years saw the fruition of previous trends and the emergence of a fully-formed working-class style of leisure. This period witnessed the evolution of small public houses into fully-fledged music halls, the professionalisation of sports, the emergence of the seaside holiday, and the growth of cinema. In short, this era was the birth of the classic working-class leisure experience that embraced working-class attitudes and experiences. Therefore, an understanding of bandsmen, bands and the social networks that supported them adds to the understanding of a period when both men and women were taking part in pastimes that started to define working-class cultural identity after the mid-nineteenth century. Indeed, the brass band becomes a site to explore working-class life from the 1840s onwards.
Local Archives and the History of Labouring People
The Society for the Study of Labour History (founded in 1960) investigated how trade unions and the Labour movement became a representation of influence in British society. Asa Briggs, and other contributors to Chartist Studies, changed modern study into the movement arguing that Chartism could only be understood fully through local studies, in an attempt to record the activities of the movement’s rank and file members.
This view is reflected in my own work by my use of many local studies source material, not only newspapers, but also local diaries, reflections, minute books and financial records that discuss local bands and their relationships within the community. In addition local and national newspapers, magazines, music journals and the brass band movement’s own press, records that have been overlooked in earlier analysis of the social networks of brass bands, have been used.
Local studies materials then are significant collections that can bring new material to the historical record.
Where primary sources and books cannot be found in the British Library collections I have listed the locations using the following key:
Accrington Local Studies Library (ALS)
Bacup Local Studies Library (BLS)
Bolton Archive Service (BOAS)
Bradford Local Studies Library (BRLS)
Burnley Local Studies Library (BULS)
Bury Archive Service (BAS)
Halifax Local Studies Library (HXLS)
Haworth Brass Band (HB)
Huddersfield Local Studies Library (HLS)
Lancashire Record Office, Preston (LRO)
Leeds Local Studies Library (LLS)
National Brass Band Archive, Wigan (BBA)
Rawtenstall Local Studies Library (RLS)
Salford Local Studies Library (SLS)
Todmorden Community Brass Band (TCBB)
West Yorkshire Archive Service, Bradford (WYASBR)
West Yorkshire Archive Service, Calderdale (WYASCD)
Brass Band History Booklets:
Anon, Irwell Springs (Bacup) Band (Bacup, 1914) (RLS)
Anon, Life and Career of the Late Mr. Edwin Swift, a Self-Made Musician, Bandmaster and Adjudicator: Trainer of Many of the Leading Bands in the North of England, (n.p. 1904) (HLS)
Anon, Milnrow Public Band, 1869-1969 (Milnrow, 1969) (BBA)
Anon, Slaithwaite Band: Golden Jubilee Year Souvenir (Huddersfield, 1975) (HLS)
Anon, Stalybridge Old Band, 1814-1914 (Stalybridge, n.d.) (BBA)
Bythell, D. Banding in the Dales: A Centenary History of Muker Silver Band (Muker, 1997)
Bythel, D. Water, A Village Band, 1866-1991 (Water Band, Rossendale, Lancashire, 1991) (RLS)
Carrington, R. (Ed.), The Centenary Chronicle of Rothwell Temperance Band, 1881-1981, A Tribute to Those Who Have Gone Before (Leeds, 1981) (BBA)
Hampson, J. N. The Origin, History and Achievements of Besses o’ th’ Barn Band (Northampton, 1893) (ALS)
Hartley, E. A. Brindle Band: A Social and Cultural History of a Lancashire Brass Band, 1868-2000 (Preston, 2000) (LRO)
Hesling White, J. E. Our Village Band (Bramley, 1905) (LLS)
Hesling-White, J. E. A Short History of Bramley Band From Its Inception to The Present Time. With Glimpses of Old Time Doings in Bramley (Bramley, 1906) (LLS)
Hume, J. O., Souvenir of St Hilda’s Band (n.p.1929) (BBA)
Leech, I. Reminisces of The Bacup Old Band, Which Appeared in the Columns of the Bacup Times in 1893 (Bacup, 1893) (RLS)
Lord, S. The History and Some Personal Recollections of the Whitworth Vale and Healy Band (Rochdale, 2005) (RLS)
Massy, R. Meltham and Meltham Mills Band 1846 -1996, 150 Years of Music, Commemorative Booklet (n.p.1996) (BBA)
Rogerson, B. ‘A Touch of Brass’, Eccles & District Historical Society Lectures (1977-1978) (SLS)
Walker , M. The History of Farnworth and Walkden Brass Band: A Brief History of Brass Bands in the Bolton District (n.p., 2007) (RLS)
Local History Pamphlets:
Baldwin, A. Crompton, M. Hargreaves, I. Simpson, J. Taylor, G. The Changing Faces of Rossendale: Production Lines (Halifax, n.d.) (RLS)
Clifton Subscription Brass Band-Plan of Proposed Band Room, Clifton (11 May, 1898) (WYASCD), catalogue ref CMT6/MU: 24/42
Brass Band Minute Books:
Haworth Brass Band Minute Books, 1900-1904 (HB)
Minute Book of The Christian Brethren Brass Band, Cleckheaton, 1886-1899 (WYASCD), catalogue ref, K131
Heap Bridge Brass Band Minute Books, 1898-1914 (BAS), catalogue ref, RHB/1/1
Helmshore Brass Band Minute Books, 1889-1922 (ALS)
Brass Band Tutor Books and Instrumental Methods:
Arban, J. B. Grande Méthode Complète de Cornet à Pistons et de Saxhorn (Paris, 1864) (BBA)
Curwen, J. The Brass Band Book for Tonic Sol-Fa Pupils, Containing Instructions for the Cornet, Bugle, Tenor, Baritone, Euphonium, Bombardon, Trumpet, Trombone, Ohecleide and French horn (London, 1864) (BBA)
Wright and Round’s Amateur Band Teacher’s Guide and Bandsman’s Adviser (Liverpool, 1889) (BBA)
G.U.S. (Footwear) Band 1867-1967, Centenary Year Concert Programme (12 November, 1967), catalogue reference, RC785G00 (RLS)
Music in Greenhead Park Concert Programmes (1901-1922) (HLS)
Contest Entry Forms:
Contest Entry Forms for the Belle Vue Contest, Manchester, from 1901-1904 (BBA)
Database of Contest Results from 1900-Present (BBA)
Correspondence and Reports:
Correspondence re Bury Recreation Grounds, 1895-1905 (BAS), catalogue ref, ABU2/3/7/1
Park Superintendents Reports on Bands, 1812-1913 (BOAS), catalogue ref, AF/6/125/2
Documents Relating to Oats Royds Mill Brass Band, 1864-1897 (WYASCD), catalogue ref, JM857: Band Uniform Brass Tunic Buttons
Newspaper Cuttings With Regard to John Foster and Sons, and Local Events in Bradford and Queensbury (WYASBR) catalogue ref, 6195/9/1/1
Peacock M. R. Haworth Public Prize Band Poem (September, 1912) (HB)
Financial Records, Personnel Records and Receipts:
Bradford Brass Band Account Book, 1854-1858 (WYASBR), catalogue ref, DB16/C31
Bradford Borough Council, Town Clerk, Papers Regarding Peel Park, Including Financial Agreements, Correspondence, Minutes, Plans, Reports and Subscriptions, 1851-1864 (WYASBR) catalogue ref, 1D82
John Foster and Sons, Director’s Minute Book, 1891-1920 (WYASBR) catalogue ref, 61D9521/1
Documents Relating to Oats Royds Mill Brass Band, 1864-1897 (WYASCD) catalogue ref, JM857:
Engraving receipt 253a, 31 December, 1869, receipt, 254a, 31 December 1870
Estimate for band clothing
Instrument and band membership lists, 1864-1884
Settled Accounts in the Winding up of Oats Royd Mill Brass Band (11 November, 1890)
Helmshore Brass Band Leger Books, 1901-1914 (ALS)
Heap Bridge Brass Band Trust Deed for Instruments and Other Property, 21 December, 1885 (BAS), catalogue ref, RHB 2/1
Register of Staff Absences, With Time Off, and Cause, to Playing in Black Dyke Band, 1864-1880 (WYASBR), ref 61D95/ 8 box 1/ 4
Watson and Son and Smith, Solicitors, Bradford, Records (Idle and Thackley Brass Band Papers, 1898-1943 (WYASBR), catalogue ref, GB202
Todmorden Old Brass Band Ledger Books, 1900-1910 (TCBB)
Anon, Recreation for the Working Classes on Temperance Principles (Dublin, 1857)
Uniforms Act 1894, Office of Public Sector Information, <http//www.opsi.gov.uk/acts/acts1894/pdf/ukpga18940045_en.pdf>
Halifax and Huddersfield Mercantile Directory, 1863-64, (London, 1863) (HXLS)
Kelly’s Directory of the West Riding of Yorkshire, 1897 (London, 1897) (HXLS)
Trust Deeds, Rules and Regulations:
Clifton Brass Band, Declaration of Trust, 1882 (WYASCD), catalogue ref, KMA: 1850
Cliviger Prize Band Rules and By-Laws, 1908 (BULS), catalogue ref, LT641
Haworth Public Band Agreement (6 December, 1876) (WYASBR) catalogue ref, 80D/92
Idle and Thackley Public Brass Band, Rules and Regulations (30 July, 1898) (WYASBR) catalogue ref, 540D/1/5
The Shipley Brass Band Trust Deed (7 March, 1894) (WYASBR), catalogue ref, 41D/84/49
Unpublished Manuscripts, Diaries and Reflections:
James Law Cropper, Memories, typewritten transcription of interviews (n.d.) (RLS)
Moses Heap, An Old Man’s Memories n.d. (typescript, 1970) (RLS)
Moses Heap of Rossendale, My Life and Times (1824-1913) (transcribed by John Elliot, 1961) (RLS)
Diary of Willie Jeffrey, 1906 (Queensbury Historical Society) photocopy, held in (BRLS)
 Eric J. Hobsbawm, Industry and Empire From 1750 to the Present Day (London, 1968, this edition, updated with Chris Wrigley, 1999), p. 34.
 Patrick Joyce, Work, Society and Politics: The Culture of the Factory in Later Victorian England (Brighton, 1980, this edition, London, 1982), p. xiii.
 Magazine of Music, 9/4, (April, 1892), pp. 62-63.
 Martin Childs, Labour’s Apprentices: Working-Class Lads in Late Victorian and Edwardian England (Belfast, 1992), p. 143.
 See Eric Hobsbawm, ‘The Making of the Working Class, 1870-1914’, in Eric Hobsbawm, Uncommon People: Resistance, Rebellion and Jazz (London, 1998, this edition, 1999), pp. 78-99.
 McWilliam, Popular Politics, p. 21.
On the 24 February I will be leading another session of ‘Slate-Grey Rain and Polished Euphoniums’: Brass Bands, the Working Class and the North, ca. 1840-1914, at Heritage Quay Archive Centre, at the University of Huddersfield. This short adult-education course explores why, in the popular imagination, and, almost without question, the brass band movement should be such a powerful symbol of northern working-class identity? This question is all the more surprising when we recognise that the brass band movement was a national movement in this period. Why, in other words, were the brass bands of the Southern Pennines at the centre of this creation of northern working-class culture, ca. 1840-1914? The Course Handbook can be downloaded and if you would like to discuss arranging the course for your learning centre email me for more details.
Session one examined how the manufacturing districts of Yorkshire and Lancashire developed a reputation as a centre of excellence for amateur working-class music making. This gave brass bands a secure foundation to begin a leisure pursuit that would become a highly recognisable working-class hobby. This region was also where influential historians, such as E.P. Thompson, Eric Hobsbawm and Patrick Joyce, have turned to understand how labouring people lived their lives during the ‘classic’ period of class formation. We discovered how the history of labouring people could be understood by the examination and use of local archives. This was an approach advocated by Asa Briggs and the journal Chartist Studies and as such influenced a significant amount of research into working-class identity.
Session two developed this idea further and we examined a significant amount of archival documents and discovered how bandsmen ‘invented a tradition’ of music-making that was self-replicating, mentor driven and spread by a semi-oral transmission of style. This resulted in bandsmen creating their own working-class identity with their own rituals and customs, made up of concerts and in particular a regular contest season.
Session three will examine how and why brass bands should be considered a northern phenomenon?
In 1907, the popularity of the national brass band contest at London’s Crystal Palace led the Musical Herald to reflect on two of the bands that were taking part in the contest. They were Wingates Temperance Brass Band, formed in 1873, near the north-west town of Westhoughton, in Lancashire, and Goodshaw Brass Band, formed in 1867, at Goodshawfold, in east Lancashire’s Rossendale Valley, an author in the Musical Herald wrote:
Where is Wingates? Where is Goodshaw? You don’t know. The same answer might be given regarding scores of villages whence bands came on Sept. 28th to the Crystal Palace […]. We have had bands for a generation past coming out of the unknown and making their villages famous.
Such questions, clearly aimed at a musical audience outside of the region, showed that the industrial north contained communities where brass bands flourished. This session explores how the bandsmen, and the brass bands of the Southern Pennines, influenced the construction of an idea of the north: In spite of being a national movement the bandsmen, through their culture of brass bands, contributed to a clichéd perception of the north that flourished well before 1914.
There were a significant number of ‘crack’ bands that came from the Southern Pennines and these bands were emulated by others. Yet this does not account fully for their distinctiveness, as other areas of the country had equally strong brass band traditions. It is undeniable that the Southern Pennines had a strong tradition of music-making and musical appreciation, but there was a great deal of activity in other areas of the country. By the late nineteenth century virtually every town and village in the country had at least one kind of amateur musical ensemble, and Dave Russell has argued that ‘the brass band was perhaps the most pervasive of all.’ Alun Howkins, for example, discovered 148 bands in rural Oxfordshire alone that were active between 1840 and 1914. Brass band periodicals reported on the activities of bands from almost every corner of the country.
This session will explore how the brass band did not so much create separate identities for Yorkshire or Lancashire but brought them together as a recognisable ‘north’ that southern readers could identify as a specific industrialised north, often without clear boundaries. Moreover, this north was a place that represented industrial and urban manual labour over commerce and agriculture. The press and brass band periodicals between 1840 and 1914 provided an anthropological view of ‘northernness’ that focussed upon the manufacturing districts of the Southern Pennines. As a result of this reporting, to the northern and the southern Victorian and Edwardian observer, brass bands represented an example of the clash of values between northern and southern identity.
As before we have many archival documents to unpack and analyse.
 Musical Herald (1 November, 1907), p. 342.
 David Russell, The Popular Music Societies of the Yorkshire Textile District, 1850-1914: A Study of the Relationships between Music and Society (PhD Thesis, University of York, 1979), p. 316.(In the south and west of England Russell points out that they are more accurately described as ‘brass and reed’ or ‘military’ bands.)
 Alun Howkins, ‘Whitsuntide in Nineteenth-Century Oxfordshire’ History Workshop Pamphlet, No 8 (1973), cited in Russell, The Popular Music Societies of the Yorkshire Textile District, p. 316.
The Place, Hanley, 1975
I was thinking about some research ideas and I happened on a quote about Maxims, a discotheque in North Staffordshire, that opened in 1969, in Hanley, and later moved to Newcastle-Under-Lyme. The club celebrated twenty years of business in 1989. (Evening Sentinel, 28 Nov, 2014) In 1975 the local ‘what’s on’ guide for Stoke-on-Trent described Maxims as ‘the most breathtakingly beautiful discotheque in the Midlands.'(The Place Passbook, 1975, p.2.) To me, this phrase generated a number of ideas that centred on provincial life in the 1970s. Notions of the ‘dinner party’, the ‘aspirational’, the ‘sophisticated’ and the ‘important’. A night out in provincial Britain, it seemed, had become a way to see and be seen. The provincial nightclub was an area where musical performance enabled elements of status and display.
Lunchtime Venues and Evening Meals: Two for One
On investigating further I discovered that there was a large number of discotheques in the region that were not only nightclubs, but also places where you could have lunch or dinner in a ‘sophisticated and elegant setting’. The business lunch was a high-profile marketing idea where business could be conducted at lunchtime in a nightclub arena. In the 1960s The Place in Hanley had an oval plate with the menu printed on it. For the evening these disco restaurants became places to have a meal before taking in a show and dancing the night away. In a sense they had become entertainment centres. You could eat, drink, dance and be entertained in the same building. It could, indeed, be ‘breathtaking.
In addition these clubs had guest DJ’s, often high profile people from Radio One, comedians and live bands such as Little and Large, The New Seekers and The Three Degrees. In other words they reflected the Working Mens’Club experience closely. Yet, here is the difference: these provincial clubs were viewed in a sophisticated and elegant way. A dress code was enforced, ties, shoes and smart wear. Membership was often required and the décor reflected what was considered to be sophisticated and chique (Velvet seats, mirrors, chrome and tiles.) They were designed to be ‘breathtaking’. Were they a diversion from the ennui of labour? Perhaps. Were they aspirational? Almost certainly. There are many questions to be answered about class, aspiration and status, together with the escape from the ennui of labour, c.1969-1990. In the final analysis, as I grapple with this new research, the themes of labour history: class, community, gender and region appear over and over again.
Is this Musicology or Social History?
The short answer is that this foray into provincial nightlife uses music as an agency to explore social networks and the identities that grew from them. Hence it is musicology and social history. The approach taken in ‘Chicken in a Basket’ bridges a gap between musicology and social history. Indeed Dave Russell recently wrote about the Batley Varieties nightclub, in West Yorkshire, in the Journal of Social History. ‘Glimpsing La Dolce Vita: Cultural Change and Modernity in the 1960s English Cabaret Club'(2013) and this comes at the end of a period of convergence that embraced an interdisciplinary approach.
In 1979 William Weber saw that musicologists and social historians had similar interests. Yet he still saw musicologists as scholars who tried to find meaning in musical scores, and social historians as researchers who tried to find historical significance in social groups. The link between music and the development of social networks had not yet been fully formed. Weber wrote:
I see strong similarities between recent interests of musicologists and the search among social historians for a clearer historical vocabulary. Just as musicologists are trying to arrive at a more accurate sense of how scores used to be played, so social historians are struggling to define what social groups meant to people in the past. Even if unanimity is in short supply in both fields, we all respect the past and ask that it be heard and seen in its own terms.
Dave Russell made a call to study music to understand social history, together with the need to embrace an interdisciplinary approach, in his 1993 article, ‘The “Social History” of Popular Music: A Label Without a Cause?’ Major inroads into exploring music as an interdisciplinary study were made by the ‘Music and Cultures Research Group’ in the Open University’s Music Department, consisting of Trevor Herbert, Martin Clayton and Richard Middleton. The group’s stated purpose was to ‘pursue research in the cultural study of music, with an emphasis on interdisciplinary approaches drawing on musicology, social history, anthropology, ethnomusicology, cultural theory and other relevant areas.’ The key text that resulted from this group was a collection of essays covering many aspects of the conjunction between music and culture.
Significant research also emerged from the conferences of The Royal Musical Association’s Biennial Conferences on Music in Nineteenth-Century Britain, from 1997 onwards. These conferences have been crucial gathering points for scholars from a wide range of disciplines including musicology, cultural social and economic history, politics, sociology and cultural geography. Significantly the work has been enriched by interdisciplinary dialogue. Critically, as Rachel Cowgill maintains, these conferences ‘have long since squashed the notion that musicologists are not interested in the broad contextualization of music and its significance as a cultural practice.’ This evolution and acceptance of social history within the discipline of musicology was recently expressed in 2012 at the Centre for the Study of Music, Gender and Identity (MuGI), based at the University of Huddersfield, who argue they are ‘unique within the research context of music as a discipline in our exploration of the relationship between music, gender and identity in diverse cultural and chronological contexts.’[10
‘Chicken in a Basket’ is a fledgling research project that is another attempt to explore the interdisciplinary challenges in musicology and social history. As musicologists the more we move away from the printed score the more the waters become muddied, yet this is where we can find some good fishing.
 William Weber, ‘The Muddle of the Middle Classes’, 19th-Century Music, Vol. 3, No. 2 (November, 1979), p. 185.
 Popular Music, 12/2 (May 1993), pp. 139-155.
 Martin Clayton, Trevor Herbert and Richard Middleton (Eds.), The Cultural Study of Music: A Critical Introduction (New York, 2003), < http://www.open.ac.uk/Arts/music/musiccult.shtml> accessed, 6 October, 2011.
 Martin Clayton, Trevor Herbert and Richard Middleton (Eds.), The Cultural Study of Music, p. 1.
 <http:/www.cardiff.ac.uk/music/newsandevents/events/conferences/13MNCB/aboutMNCB.html> accessed, 15 May, 2013.
 See, for example, Bennett Zon (Ed.), Nineteenth-Century British Music Studies Volume 1(Aldershot, 1997); Jeremy Dibble (Ed.), Nineteenth-Century Music Studies Volume 2 (Aldershot, 2002); Peter Horton and Bennett Zon (Eds.), Nineteenth-Century Music Studies Volume 3 (Aldershot, 2003); Rachael Cowgill and Julian Ruston (Eds.), Europe, Empire and Spectacle in Nineteenth-Century British Music (Aldershot,2006) and Paul Rodmell (Ed.), Music and Institutions in Nineteenth-Century Britain (Farnham, 2012).
 See the previous website.
 < http://www.hud.ac.uk/research/researchcentres/mugi/> accessed, 2 January, 2014.
A Belle Vue Contest Programme: A Model for Comment
By the 1840s brass band contests in the North of England were very popular and it was not unusual to see crowds of up to ten-thousand people at local contests. By the 1870s regular contests were being held at Belle Vue, in Manchester, and at the Crystal Palace in London.
What emerged from musical writing in this period were observations of the brass band movement from a middle-class position; the writing was quasi-anthropological in nature, resulting in studies of working-class music-making that engaged with, and complemented, observations of the changing nature of working-class leisure in this period. For the press it was the brass band contest that became the central event in the representation of the emergence of working-class cultural identity. One phenomenom that emerged was the writing of poems to illustrate the nature of these contests.
Inherent in this verse is the working-class nature of the bandsmen and their involvement in skilled or manual labour. The word slubber, for example, comes from the word to describe the preparation of wool or cotton for spinning and included three working-class roles, from the labouring to the skilled, the Slubber Doffer, who removed the empty bobbins from the loom spindles, the Slubbing Frame Fitter, who installed and maintained the frame used in the preparation of the cloth, together with the Drawing Frame Slubber Hand who operated the machine used to prepare the cloth. Music as a rational recreation was slowly becoming a way the working class could define their own cultural identity. To be in a brass band was to be of the working class.
By 1877, for example, the Musical World wrote a long poem about an upcoming brass band contest featuring the efforts of the fictitious northern Cleaster Brass Band to enter a regional contest.
The ease with which bandsmen were perceived by this journal as being familiar with the standard canon of composers indicated that real bandsmen were more than familiar with celebrated composers.
In addition the poem highlighted how easy it was to obtain brass instruments by either credit or cash and start a musical hobby. This hobby led to social networks. Social networks that were reinforced by the way the railway gave people mobility.
Also shown is that the contest was a communal event that included the consumption of alcohol. By the 1870s drinking was a social lubricant and less of a debilitating event. The contest was becoming a homosocial environment where laboring men could define themselves by their hobby and the company they kept. This also had elements of roughness and violence when disagreements arose. Even though many Victorians believed that music would civilize and educate the working class, what emerged was that the brass band contest was where working-class roughness could exist. So, in one poem, we see the development of working-class identity through music-making. We have the hobby as respectable pursuit. The hobby as social network. The hobby as homosocial arena with inherent roughness.
Enjoy the poem.
The Musical World wrote:
Come, listen to me, and a story I’ll sing
About a Band Contest which took place last spring,
And the fun and the frolic the adventure did bring,
A twelvemonth ago now come Easter.
The folks in the neighbouring town sent a bill,
With a note, “If your band wish to play, then please fill
Up the spaces in blank, just to say what you will
Concerning this contest at Cleaster.”
Now Cleaster’s a city some ten miles away,
A junction for Durham, Leeds, Bridlington Bay,
Through which some four hundred trains pass ev’ry day,
Of all sorts – goods, cattle, expresses.
They cultivate music of every kind,
They sing and play pieces, both coarse and refined;
In short, they’re a people in no way behind
The age, as perhaps each now guesses.
Ev’ry year they give prizes of various sums,
Silver cups, plated cornets, gilt batons, and drums,
To the finest Brass Band, from wherever it comes,
Provided the playing is decent.
‘We had often desired to be down on their list,
But somehow or other the chance we had missed;
They passed us, as if we did never exist,
Though we’d gained some good laurels but recent.
At last we’d received the long looked-for invite;
We filled up the form, and despatched it all right,
And at once began practising that very night,
So eager we were for the prizes.
We sent to De Lacy for all the best tunes:
We bought a new tenor sax, two bombardoons,
A slide alto trombone, that shined like full moons,
In the clear winter’s sky, as each rises.
So soon as the factory bell told us to cease,
And we’d washed ourselves clear from the slubber and grease,
We met at the sign of “The Fox and the Geese”,
And sat in a ring round the table.
When Bumbly-foot Harry gave word for to start,
We blew hard at Haydn, Beethoven, Mozart,
Until ev’ry man knew the lot off by heart,
And to play without music was able.
Not to weary you all with a troublesome tale,
Know, we met for improvement each night without fail;
After practice each man took his one gill of ale,
And straightway went home without staying.
The winter flew past, and the buds ‘gan to burst,
And the throstle sang blithely by coppice and hurst,
And still we ground on as we had done at first,
To make sure of a good place in playing.
At last the long looked-for day opened up bright,
We’d scarce slept a wink through the whole of the night,
So eager we were to show Cleaster our might,
And to come back all loaded with laurel.
We hired a waggon, with two pair of greys,
Each one took his instrument lapped in red baize;
Our coats had red trimmings, our caps were red glaze,
Like sealing-wax melted, or coral.
We start. As our neighbours collected to cheer,
And to wish us good luck, Johnny Smart from the rear
Threw a slipper, which hit Humbly-foot on the ear,
And caused him to fly in a passion.
He soon calmed himself, and we clattered away,
With confidence singing, so happy and gay;
Ne’er doubting a bit but we should win the day,
We entered the town in good fashion.
We got to the place where the tents were set out,
And when we had time just to look round about,
Sure ne’er in your life did you see such a rout,
Or hear such a comical shindy.
There were brass bands from all the towns twenty miles round,
All blowing at once as they came on the ground,
Each trying the best who could make the most sound,
All the time full discordant and windy.
At last the bell rung, and the judge took his seat,
And the bands were set out in good order complete,
And the humming of voices alone the ears greet,
As each waited the call of the numbers.
The judge knew the bands by the figures they held,
And not by their titles or place where they dwelled;
As the tickets were drawn from the hat; then soon quell’d
All the talkers as if sent to slumbers.
Our ticket was “six”, we were drawn to play first,
And we set ourselves out in the plan we’d rehearsed,
And till told to begin our impatience we nursed,
With our instruments ready for blowing.
A thundering cheer made us all feel elate,
And angered the other bands who had to wait,
And to guess by our playing what would be their fate,
If they worse than us should be showing.
We first played a Chorus from Handel’s Messiah,
And then a strange piece at the judge’s desire,
After that the bombardon performed “Obadiah”,
And other new music-hall ditties.
Upon which our first horn made a few observations,
Which the cornet replied to with frantic gyrations,
And the piccolo whistled a few variations,
Like frolicsome gambols of kitties.
How the other bands got on I can’t tell you now;
Enough that the day ended up in a row,
For the pride of the lot had that day low to bow
We had won the first prize in a canter.
Our foes said our playing was nothing but fudge;
A mistake had been made, and that they wouldn’t budge
Until the award was reversed by the judge,
Whom they made an endeavour to banter.
But a truce was patched up, and the bands stood apart,
To play altogether a piece off by heart,
All waited in silence the signal to start,
As was usually done at conclusion.
But the anger long smothered broke out in a flame;
And while some bands were silent at loss of their fame,
Some played “Hallelujah”, some played “Same old game”,
And all marched away in confusion.
At length to the station with fury they hie,
And each tried his neighbour in noise to outvie,
And from blows came to words, and in words did deny
The right of a triumph to other.
Soon words grew to deeds, and then cornets did clash
Against arms, breasts, and shoulders; and now with a dash
A mighty bass tuba comes down with a smash
On the head of the drummer’s big brother.
The fray was now fierce, and the shout and the cry
Was mixed with wild blasts from defeated ally,
And the blowing off steam from the engine hard by,
And the shriek of the whistle for starting.
Cornet bells were pulled off, curly saxhorns stretched straight,
Drum heads were all burst, and cracked many a pate,
When the voice of Joe Jolly cried: “Make for the gate
And I’ll set the foemen a-smarting”.
Joe’s coat was ripped up, and his red cap was gone,
His shirt and his waistcoat to ribbons were torn,
His eyes swoll’n and blacken’d, yet darted forth scorn
At our rivals, through whom he was rushing.
“Make the gate, make the gate!” still he cried in his rage
And leave me alone with the foe to engage!”
No words we could say did his fury assuage,
As we fell back, each other near crushing.
How nobly he stood, and how nobly he fought,
I cannot now tell but must leave it to thought,
Suffice it, in safety our waggon we caught,
As the enemy fled from him howling.
The slide of his trombone he lost in the fray;
He had bought a few pints of gray peas on his way,
Through the mouthpiece these missiles he’d scattered like spray
And they stung like small shots used in fowling.
Thus ended the day, and thus opened our fame,
Though ’twas won at the cost of some bruised and some lame.
All our instruments spoilt, all our clothes torn to shame,
On that memorable Monday last Easter.
The first prize we gained, and that was our pride,
And a salve for our wounds, and a solace beside.
So now you know all that to us did betide
At our first brass band contest at Cleaster.
I am currently leading a series of three adult-education seminars at Heritage Quay Archive Centre, at the University of Huddersfield, called, Slate-Grey Rain and Polished Euphoniums: Brass Bands, the Working Class and the North, c. 1840-1914. The rationale behind the seminars is that we dig deep into the British Music Collection, held at Heritage Quay, in the University of Huddersfield, and examine why brass bands are considered, almost without question, in the popular imagination, a metonym of northern working-class culture. (The link to Heritage Quay and the course is here: http://heritagequay.org/events/1742-2016-02-03/
In the first seminar we explored the North of England as a musical region. In other words we discovered that the manufacturing districts of Yorkshire and Lancashire had long been regarded as a centre of excellence for the amateur performance of instrumental, band, orchestral (of sorts) and choral music since at least the 1820s, and that a long oral tradition of folk music had been known for centuries. Brass bands had a secure foundation on which to build a musical reputation.
The next seminar will examine the elements found in the performance of brass music that created a recognisable working-class culture. An ‘invention of tradition’ if you like that was created by how bandsmen learnt to play their instruments.
In theoretical terms the seminar shows how novice bandsmen were reliant on skills and methods that were passed down by other bandsmen. Music was taught through a semi-oral transmission of technique which disseminated advice from tutors through a selection of brass band periodicals, band trainers and more experienced bandsmen. As Pierre Bourdieu described wider working-class educational experiences, the educational level and social origin of the bandsmen resulted in bandsmen creating their own cultural preferences. As Bourdieu argued, ‘this predisposes tastes to function as markers of class. The manner in which culture is acquired lives on in the manner of using it.’ Therefore, I argue that the novice brass player entered musical education with no other expectation than to be in a band, to become a bandsman. In other words, the culture of the music was there to produce the working-class bandsman. Writing in 1886 an author in the Musical World noticed that:
There are signs, indeed, of a movement, which must someday assume large proportions – a movement for providing good and cheap music for the poorer working classes […]. Now if there is one thing in the way of music that is dear to the heart of a Lancashire artisan, it is a brass band. It is the height of ambition with a lad to play in a band […]. From many a small cottage in country villages, or in the back streets of a Lancashire town, may be heard the mournful sounds of a cornet, or other wind instrument, as the mechanic struggles to make his evenings a preparation for harmonious concerts later on, when he shall have qualified for admission to the nearest amateur band he can find.
In his attempt to ‘join the nearest amateur band he can find’, this novice bandsman was attempting to learn a code of competence that would allow him to understand the styles that were characteristic of the brass band movement. The education that the novice received was central to this understanding
Below are some archival pieces that will hopefully unpack these notions further. Or perhaps my students will argue against this basic outline?
The first archival piece is Wright and Round’s Amateur Band Teacher’s Guide and Bandsman’s Adviser, published in 1899. It was a collection of advice pieces made up from earlier editions of the Brass Band News. In the early twentieth century it had gone through at least twenty-two editions, and was in use in the 1920s.
The editors advocated the training methods in use among northern bands: theirs was ‘a synthesis of the systems on which the celebrated prize bands of Lancashire and Yorkshire [were] taught.’ How much, I wonder, will they agree that the notion of bands copying the ‘crack’ bands, such as Besses and Black Dyke Mills, created an environment where the oral-transmission of technique became significant when music lessons were out of reach for many bandsmen?
The next collection are brass band contest entry forms from the Belle Vue Contests from 1901-1910. These are representative of many aspects of working-class culture. The social aspects of ‘banding’, the community support, the development of leisure, the link with band contests and sport. In addition many bandsmen were ‘ringers’ for bands, having the ability to earn money. What did this mean for masculinity? The band contest was a place where all working-class life was found, even poverty. How, in other words, did bands become an arena where middle-class commentators could invent a quasi- anthropological reportage of the working class at leisure?
Just these two documents, and there are many more to show, have opened up questions, of class, culture, community, region and gender. It’s a pity we have only got two hours for this session.
 Pierre Bourdieu, Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste, translated by Richard Nice (Paris, 1979, this edition, London, 1994), p. 1.
 Bourdieu, Distinction, p. 2.
 Musical World, 64/46 (3 November, 1886), p. 725.
 Bourdieu, Distinction, p. 2.
On this page are a selection of my publications and ongoing research. I am happy to give guest lectures, host seminars and offer adult-education programmes and tutoring based on the themes raised in my research. The key themes are class, culture, community, gender, region.
I can also offer seminars and advice on managing post-graduate study. Themes could include time-management, project management, academic writing, conference organisation, networking, motivation, dealing with research isolation and mining for research ideas. Email me for more details.
Anne Baldwin, Chris Ellis, Stephen Etheridge, Keith Laybourn and Neil Pye (Eds) Class, Culture and Community: New Perspectives in Nineteenth and Twentieth Century Labour History (Cambridge Scholars Publishing, Newcastle-Upon-Tyne, 2012)
In recent years historians have debated fervently on the reason for the
decline of British Labour History as an academic discipline. Most certainly
the challenge of Thatcherism to the working classes and trade unions in the
1980s, and the fragmentation of Labour history into gender studies,
industrial studies and women’s history, have contributed to its apparent
decline. Post-modernists challenges to the concept of class, culture and
community have done their damage. As a result “Labour history “, in its
broad-school sense, has been taught less and less in British universities.
Yet it survives and there are grounds for believing that it will revive.
This collection of chapters arose from a conference held at the University
of Huddersfield in November 2010, held under the auspices of the Society for
the Study of Labour History, where nineteen papers were presented. Ten of
this disparate array of papers form the basis of this collection and one has
been produced separately. The theme of community and localised struggle form
the first section, ranging as it does from the newspapers representation of
Yorkshire miners to brass bands and the development of separate culture. The
second section deals with the more traditional trade unionism and varieties
of industrial struggle. The third section focuses upon the political aspects
of working-class activity, drawing upon the role of women, and Labour policy
on steel nationalisation and defence. The fourth deals with radicalism,
ranging from the failure of Chartism, the policy of working-class
organisations to emigration, and the failure of the “soft” section of the
British left in the 1920s and 1930s. There is no all-embracing concept here
for what is a varied collection of chapters. However, what can be said is
that British labour history continues to provide new areas for research.
Indeed, its death as an academic discipline has been greatly exaggerated.
This collection of book chapters represents the current revival in Labour
history which has emerged in a form that brings together community and
culture alongside class and political representation to explore the breadth
and depth of working-class identity.
Chapters in Books:
Etheridge, Stephen, ‘Brass Bands in the Southern Pennines, 1857-1914: The Ethos of Rational Recreation and Perceptions of Working-Class Respectability’ in, Class, Culture and Community: New Perspectives in Nineteenth and Twentieth Century British Labour History (Cambridge Scholars Publishing, Newcastle-upon-Tyne), pp. 37-54.
Etheridge, Stephen, ‘Music as a Lifelong Pursuit for Bandsmen in the Southern Pennines, c.1840-1914: Reflections on Working-Class Masculinity’ in, Catherine Haworth and Lisa Colton (Eds.) Gender, Age and Musical Creativity (Ashgate, 2015) pp. 80-100
This chapter examines musical careers that run in parallel with brass players’ employment in the industrial north of England. Focusing particularly on notions of masculinity in the brass band movement of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, I find a strong linkage between the construction of masculine ideals in Victorian society, in terms of the value placed on economic independence and moral behaviour, and the expression of those ideals in the homosocial space of the band room and in public performance.
Etheridge, Stephen, The Brass Band and Perceptions of the North: Musical Constructions of Space, Place and Region c. 1840-1914 in Northern History pp. tbc
Articles Under Consideration:
Etheridge, Stephen, ‘Representations of the Working Class and the Construction of Cultural Identity: Brass Band Contests, Brass Bands, and Bandsmen in the Press, c. 1840-1914’ in the journal Labour History Review
Punk Rock in East Lancashire’s Rossendale Valley, c. 1978-1982: Representations of Conflict and Resolution in a Traditional Working-Class Community
The Deeply Vale Rock Festival
Women and Jazz in A 1930’s Staffordshire Town
Women Brass Musicians in Military and Brass Bands, c. 1940-1960
The Reception of Jazz in Britain, c. 1900-1930
The Nineteenth-Century Choral Society and Civic Identity, c. 1840-1914
Music Clubs and Leisure c. 1930-1950